Glossary

Balance sheet:

Statement of the assets and debts of an individual, couple, family, or company. This exercise makes it possible to determine one’s financial situation at a given date.

Bankruptcy:

A legal process that can be exercised when the debts of an individual or company exceed its assets or when its income is insufficient to pay its debts on time. When an individual or company declares bankruptcy, its assets are seized and distributed among its creditors.

Bankruptcy estate:

The sum total of property that the bankrupt is required to transfer to the Licensed Insolvency Trustee to be liquidated for distribution to creditors.

Bill C-36:

The Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act, which applies to companies whose debts exceed $5 million.

Budget:

Statement of the income and expenses of an individual, couple, or family to determine the ability to pay debts at a given date.

Conservatory measures:

Measures taken to preserve the value of an asset and keep it from losing value.

Consolidation:

A financial operation that consists of combining a number of debts to several creditors into a single long term debt to a single creditor.

Consumer debtor:

Individual who is bankrupt or insolvent and whose aggregate debts, excluding any debts secured by his or her principal residence, do not exceed $75,000 or any other prescribed amount.

Consumer proposal:

A simplified proposal for the repayment of debts to creditors by consumer debtors. This proposal is often made in conjunction with debt consolidation.

Credit:

The degree of solvency of a company or individual.

Credit file:

Information collected on your credit card balances and limits, credit lines, debts, payment history (late payments), banking information, bankruptcies, judgments, accounts in collection, etc.

Credit score:

Measure of your solvency or repayment reputation based on information gathered from financial institutions, retailers, and other lenders.

Creditor:

Individual to whom or entity to which money is owed.

Current assets:

Asset than can be converted into cash within a year.

Current liabilities:

Debt obligations the company must fulfill within one year of its normal operating cycle, whichever is longer.

Dependent:

Individual who depends on another for support (e.g., spouse, under-age child, person with a disability, or student).

Dischargeable debts:

Debts that can be cancelled by a bankruptcy.

Dividends:

Distribution to creditors by the Licensed Insolvency Trustee of the amounts paid in accordance with the consumer proposal pursuant to the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act.

Equity:

Startup capital, profit that has not been paid out as dividends, and income.

Insolvency:

A situation in which an individual is unable to pay his or her debts on time or during the normal course of business.

Inventory:

Detailed statement of the property held by an individual or company at a given date.

Licensed Insolvency Trustee:

Individual licensed by the superintendent of bankruptcy to administer estates in bankruptcy and proposals.

Liquidation:

The sale of a company’s property terminating the company’s operations and generating a sum of money that the Licensed Insolvency Trustee may distribute to creditors.

Medical expenses:

Expenses relating to health care incurred by individuals for themselves or their dependents (e.g., dentist, orthodontist, optometrist, physiotherapist, etc.).

Net income:

Gross salary minus income tax withheld.

Non-dischargeable debts:

Debts that cannot be cancelled by a bankruptcy (e.g., fines, tickets, indemnity for bodily injury, child/spousal support debts, student loans of less than 7 years, debts resulting from fraud or embezzlement).

Notice of intent:

A legal notice by which a debtor advises creditors of his or her intention to present a proposal. The notice of intent gives the debtor 30 days to 6 months to present said proposal.

Official receiver:

An official appointed by the federal government to receive documents for the presentation of proposals and bankruptcies, to question the bankrupt under oath, and to chair creditors’ meetings.

Postponement proposal:

An offer made by debtors to their creditors in order to modify their payments. This measure also allows a company to remain in business while its debt is being restructured.

Recovery:

The measures taken to restore the profitability of a company facing financial problems.

Seizure:

Taking possession of a property further to legal proceedings, a legal right, or bankruptcy.

Superintendent of bankruptcy:

Official who oversees the administration of all cases subject to the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act.

Support:

Money owed to support a child, former spouse, or other person in need.

Surplus income:

Payments that must be made by the bankrupt during the bankruptcy period. The amount of these payments is based on standards established by the superintendent of bankruptcy and varies according to the personal and family situation of the bankrupt.

Tax debts:

Monies due to a level of government for the payment of income tax.

Total liabilities:

All debt obligations incurred by the company.

Unseizable:

Property that cannot be seized by a Licensed Insolvency Trustee or creditor. As a result the trustee cannot dispose of it for the benefit of creditors.